February 5, 2021
Traversals are commonly seen in tree data structures, and performance-enhancing transformations between tree traversals are critical for many applications. Existing approaches to reasoning about tree traversals and their transformations are ad hoc, with various limitations on the classes of traversals they can handle, the granularity of dependence analysis, and the types of possible transformations. We propose Retreet, a framework in which one can describe general recursive tree traversals, precisely represent iterations, schedules and dependences, and automatically check data-race-freeness and transformation correctness. The crux of the framework is a stack-based representation for iterations and an encoding to Monadic Second- Order (MSO) logic over trees. Experiments show that Retreet can automatically verify optimizations for complex traversals on real-world data structures, such as CSS and cycletrees, which are not possible before. Our framework is also integrated with other MSO-based analysis techniques to verify even more challenging program transformations.